Erdoğan und Refah

Frog1(Yekta Özden, „Erdoğans Krieg gegen die Kemalisten hat nie aufgehört“, Interviewt von Tim Neshitov, SZ, 5.8.2016, 7)

(European Court of Human Rights, CASE OF REFAH PARTİSİ (THE WELFARE PARTY), Straßburg, 13.2.2003)

Der ehemalige türkische Verfassungsrichter Yekta Özden, unter dessen Vorsitz Refah (als Partei) Anfang 1998 verboten wurde, hält das damals ausgesprochene Verbot auch im Nachhinein noch für „richtig“:

„Ja, ich halte es auch heute für richtig, dass solche Parteien verboten werden.

[und antwortet auf Tim Neshitovs nächste Frage:]

Wie hat sich die AKP entwickelt?

Sie unterscheidet sich heute kaum noch von Refah. Die AKP setzt eigentlich die  islamistische Agenda von Refah um.“

Das war, ist und bleibt Erdoğans Agenda, ob die verblendeten Gutmenschen dies nun wahrhaben wollen oder nicht…

Übrigens: Am 13.2.2003 bestätigte der EGMR die Rechtmäßigkeit des Parteiverbots unter Verweis auf beabsichtigte Einführung der Scharia.

Hier für all die Gutmenschen, die vom EGMR angeführten Hinweise auf die Absicht der türkischen Islamisten, die Scharia wieder einzuführen, zum Nachlesen:

„(b) Sharia

120. The Court observes in the first place that the intention to set up a regime based on sharia was explicitly portended in the following remarks cited by the Constitutional Court, which had been made by certain members of Refah, all of whom were MPs:

– In a television interview broadcast on 24 November 1996 Mr Hasan Hüseyin Ceylan, Refah MP for the province of Ankara, said that sharia was the solution for the country (see paragraph 34 above);

– On 8 May 1997 Mr İbrahim Halil Çelik, Refah MP for the province of Şanlıurfa, said: “I will fight to the end to introduce sharia” (see paragraph 37 above);

– In April 1994 Mr Şevki Yılmaz, Refah MP for the province of Rize, urged believers to “call to account those who turn their backs on the precepts of the Koran and those who deprive Allah’s Messenger of his jurisdiction in their country” and asserted: “Only 39% [of the rules] in the Koran are applied in this country. Six thousand five hundred verses have been quietly forgotten …” He went on to say: “The condition to be met before prayer is the Islamisation of power. Allah says that, before mosques, it is the path of power which must be Muslim” and “The question Allah will ask you is this: ‘Why, in the time of the blasphemous regime, did you not work for the construction of an Islamic State?’ Erbakan and his friends want to bring Islam to this country in the form of a political party. The prosecutor understood that clearly. If we could understand that as he did, the problem would be solved” (see paragraph 33 above).

121. The Court further notes the following remarks by Refah’s chairman and vice-chairman, on their desire to set up a “just order” or “order of justice” or “God’s order”, which the Constitutional Court took into consideration:

– On 13 April 1994 Mr Necmettin Erbakan said: “Refah will come to power and a just order [adil dozen] will be established” (see paragraph 31 above), and in a speech on 7 May 1996 he praised “those who contribute, with conviction, to the supremacy of Allah” (see paragraph 39 above);

– While on pilgrimage in 1993 Mr Ahmet Tekdal said: “If the people … do not work hard enough to bring about the advent of ‘hak nizami’ [a just order or God’s order], … they will be tyrannised by [renegades] and will eventually disappear … they will not be able to give a satisfactory account of themselves to Allah, as they will not have worked to establish ‘hak nizami’ ” (see paragraph 35 above).

122. Even though these last two statements lend themselves to a number of different interpretations, their common denominator is that they both refer to religious or divine rules as the basis for the political regime which the speakers wished to bring into being. They betray ambiguity about those speakers’ attachment to any order not based on religious rules. In the light of the context created by the various views attributed to Refah’s leaders which the Constitutional Court cited in its judgment, for example on the question of the wearing of Islamic headscarves in the public sector or on the organisation of working hours in the civil service to fit in with the appointed times for prayers, the statements concerned could reasonably have been understood as confirming statements made by Refah MPs which revealed the party’s intention of setting up a regime based on sharia. The Court can therefore accept the Constitutional Court’s conclusion that these remarks and stances of Refah’s leaders formed a whole and gave a clear picture of a model conceived and proposed by the party of a State and society organised according to religious rules.

123. The Court concurs in the Chamber’s view that sharia is incompatible with the fundamental principles of democracy, as set forth in the Convention:

“72. Like the Constitutional Court, the Court considers that sharia, which faithfully reflects the dogmas and divine rules laid down by religion, is stable and invariable. Principles such as pluralism in the political sphere or the constant evolution of public freedoms have no place in it. The Court notes that, when read together, the offending statements, which contain explicit references to the introduction of sharia, are difficult to reconcile with the fundamental principles of democracy, as conceived in the Convention taken as a whole. It is difficult to declare one’s respect for democracy and human rights while at the same time supporting a regime based on sharia, which clearly diverges from Convention values, particularly with regard to its criminal law and criminal procedure, its rules on the legal status of women and the way it intervenes in all spheres of private and public life in accordance with religious precepts. … In the Court’s view, a political party whose actions seem to be aimed at introducing sharia in a State party to the Convention can hardly be regarded as an association complying with the democratic ideal that underlies the whole of the Convention.”

124. The Court must not lose sight of the fact that in the past political movements based on religious fundamentalism have been able to seize political power in certain States and have had the opportunity to set up the model of society which they had in mind. It considers that, in accordance with the Convention’s provisions, each Contracting State may oppose such political movements in the light of its historical experience.

125. The Court further observes that there was already an Islamic theocratic regime under Ottoman law. When the former theocratic regime was dismantled and the republican regime was being set up, Turkey opted for a form of secularism which confined Islam and other religions to the sphere of private religious practice. Mindful of the importance for survival of the democratic regime of ensuring respect for the principle of secularism in Turkey, the Court considers that the Constitutional Court was justified in holding that Refah’s policy of establishing sharia was incompatible with democracy (see paragraph 40 above).

[Insbesondere die folgenden Ausführungen sollten angesichts der Flutung Deutschlands mit fundamentalistisch vorgeprägten Sunniten aus diversen die Scharia preisenden Regionen dieser Erde heute wieder aufmerksam gelesen werden!!]

(c) Sharia and its relationship with the plurality of legal systems proposed by Refah

126. The Court will next examine the applicants’ argument that the Chamber contradicted itself in holding that Refah supported introducing both a plurality of legal systems and sharia simultaneously.

It takes note of the Constitutional Court’s considerations concerning the part played by a plurality of legal systems in the application of sharia in the history of Islamic law. These showed that sharia is a system of law applicable to relations between Muslims themselves and between Muslims and the adherents of other faiths. In order to enable the communities owing allegiance to other religions to live in a society dominated by sharia, a plurality of legal systems had also been introduced by the Islamic theocratic regime during the Ottoman Empire, before the Republic was founded.

127. The Court is not required to express an opinion in the abstract on the advantages and disadvantages of a plurality of legal systems. It notes, for the purposes of the present case, that – as the Constitutional Court observed – Refah’s policy was to apply some of sharia’s private-law rules to a large part of the population in Turkey (namely Muslims), within the framework of a plurality of legal systems. Such a policy goes beyond the freedom of individuals to observe the precepts of their religion, for example by organising religious wedding ceremonies before or after a civil marriage (a common practice in Turkey) and according religious marriage the effect of a civil marriage (see, mutatis mutandis, Serif v. Greece, no. 38178/97, § 50, ECHR 1999-IX). This Refah policy falls outside the private sphere to which Turkish law confines religion and suffers from the same contradictions with the Convention system as the introduction of sharia (see paragraph 125 above).

128. Pursuing that line of reasoning, the Court rreligion.

It reiterates that freedom of religion, including the freedom to manifest one’s religion by worship and observance, is primarily a matter of individual conscience, and stresses that the sphere of individual conscience is quite different from the field of private law, which concerns the organisation and functioning of society as a whole.

It has not been disputed before the Court that in Turkey everyone can observe in his private life the requirements of his religion. On the other hand, Turkey, like any other Contracting Party, may legitimately prevent the application within its jurisdiction of private-law rules of religious inspiration prejudicial to public order and the values of democracy for Convention purposes (such as rules permitting discrimination based on the gender of the parties concerned, as in polygamy and privileges for the male sex in matters of divorce and succession). The freedom to enter into contracts cannot encroach upon the State’s role as the neutral and impartial organiser of the exercise of religions, faiths and beliefs (see paragraphs 91‑92 above).ejects the applicants’ argument that prohibiting a plurality of private-law systems in the name of the special role of secularism in Turkey amounted to establishing discrimination against Muslims who wished to live their private lives in accordance with the precepts of their religion.

It reiterates that freedom of religion, including the freedom to manifest one’s religion by worship and observance, is primarily a matter of individual conscience, and stresses that the sphere of individual conscience is quite different from the field of private law, which concerns the organisation and functioning of society as a whole.

It has not been disputed before the Court that in Turkey everyone can observe in his private life the requirements of his religion. On the other hand, Turkey, like any other Contracting Party, may legitimately prevent the application within its jurisdiction of private-law rules of religious inspiration prejudicial to public order and the values of democracy for Convention purposes (such as rules permitting discrimination based on the gender of the parties concerned, as in polygamy and privileges for the male sex in matters of divorce and succession). The freedom to enter into contracts cannot encroach upon the State’s role as the neutral and impartial organiser of the exercise of religions, faiths and beliefs (see paragraphs 91‑92 above).“ (im Original keine Hervorhebungen)

(Siehe auch: Merkel und Co. sehen Erdoğan insgeheim als Islamisten)

Frog4

 

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